D.C. comes in second only to Minnesota on a list of states that have achieved the least racial progress, according to an analysis by the personal finance website WalletHub.

Factors such as median annual income, homeownership rates, education rates and voter turnout were taken into consideration for the study, which concluded that Hawaii, New Mexico, Texas Maryland and California were the highest achievers.

D.C., however, was on the list of states with the highest gaps between black and white residents in annual income, labor force participation rates and unemployment rates.

D.C. also had large gaps between the number of high school and college-educated white residents and the number of black residents with the same level of education.

Data used in the analysis was obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics.

William A. Darity, Jr., Director of the Samuel DuBois Cook Center on Social Equity at Duke University and contributor to the study, says the major causes of the wealth gap between black and white households in any state “are past patterns of wealth deprivation by race that has meant that black parents have had far less to pass on to their offspring and a history of public policies that have blocked black wealth accumulation.”

Darity points to full enforcement of anti-discrimination laws, a universal job guarantee for all American adults, fair housing and across-the-board high quality public education as good stepping stones toward closing the gap.

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